manic symptoms

Manic Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder marked by intense shifts in a person’s mood. Formerly called manic-depression, bipolar disorder can affect many aspects of a person’s life, including their sleeping and eating habits, their day-to-day functioning, their relationships, and even their job and financial situation. While the hopelessness of depression may cause patients to seek treatment, patients who experience symptoms of mania may be unable to recognize their illness.

What Is Mania?

A person who is manic will experience a dramatic upswing in their mood and feeling of well-being. They may feel more outgoing than usual, need less sleep, and feel capable of taking on many ambitious projects. Some common manic symptoms are:

  • racing thoughts, which may cause the person to speak more quickly than usual
  • becoming very easily distracted and having many ideas on the go
  • feeling restless and needing much less sleep than usual
  • having delusions of grandeur or inflated confidence about their abilities
  • impulsive, risky behaviour, such as increased sexual activity, driving too fast, making impulsive investments or spending a lot of money on shopping sprees
  • severe manic episodes can also include psychotic symptoms such as seeing or hearing things that aren’t there, or false beliefs like being famous or having magical powers

Bipolar disorder symptoms can drastically affect a person’s life, and can sometimes be so severe that the patient requires immediate inpatient care. There are varying degrees of severity within bipolar disorder, and not every patient will experience the same symptoms. Full-blown mania is often a symptom of Bipolar 1 disorder.

Manic Symptoms Are Not Always Enjoyable

While bipolar patients are frequently portrayed as being overly happy and confident, this is not always the case. Mania can also manifest itself as extreme irritability. Some people with bipolar disorder also experience mixed episodes, which include symptoms of both depression and mania at the same time.

What Is Hypomania?

Hypomania is a less extreme expression of mania which does not include psychotic features like hallucinations and delusions. Patients experiencing hypomania may feel that they have more energy than usual, and may feel more productive. Hypomania does not require emergency care, but without treatment a patient’s symptoms may escalate into mania, or tumble into depression. Hypomania is often a symptom of Bipolar 2 disorder, or of cyclothymia. Because hypomanic patients are often high-functioning, it can be difficult for them to recognize their behaviours as symptoms of bipolar disorder.

Seeking Treatment

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. Manic symptoms can not only wreak havoc in a patient’s life, but can also put them at risk for seriously harming themselves. Fortunately there is treatment available to help bipolar patients manage their illness. Anyone who is concerned that they or a loved one may be experiencing manic symptoms should talk to their doctor for further investigation of their symptoms.

managing bipolar disorder

Management of Bipolar Disorder: Find strategies to help cope with symptoms on a daily basis.

The treatment for Bipolar Disorder often includes a combination of medication and psychotherapy. However, it is important for the patient to take responsibility for his recovery and to find strategies that will allow him to manage the symptoms of bipolar disorder on a daily basis. Although Bipolar Disorder can be different in each person, there are some common ways in which people can better control their illness.

Learn About the Disorder

Become an expert in the illness: what are the major symptoms, what treatments are available, how it impacts daily life. Find out as much as you can by reading books and articles. Keep up with medical research and advances in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Understand medications, learn what medications are available and read package inserts for any medications you are taking to learn about side effects, interactions with other medications and what to expect from the medication.

Track Your Moods

Understanding and tracking your own moods will help you to understand the triggers that may bring on an acute episode of either mania or depression. There may be certain times of the year or certain situations that will start an episode. Learning these triggers can help you to reach out for support or more intensive treatment during these periods. offers useful mood charts and mood questionnaires to help you with this.

Join a Support Group

Check with your local mental health center or hospital and ask about support groups in your area. Support groups can provide you with a way to share experiences and give you the emotional support you may need. Support groups are also a way of sharing coping strategies to find out what has worked for other people.

The Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance can also provide information on support groups in your area.

Stay Away From Alcohol and Illicit Substances

Alcohol and some illicit substances (those that are mind or mood altering) can interfere with your current treatment. They can alter your emotional balance and can interact with your current medication. Although they are sometimes used as a way of “self-medicating” they do not help to manage symptoms correctly and can send you into depression or trigger mania.

Create an Emergency Plan

Keep the number to a crisis center in your wallet. Talk with friends and relatives about symptoms of acute episodes and what they can do to help you in that situation. Remember that you can go to a hospital emergency room for treatment when necessary. Discuss signs with loved ones, such as not sleeping or high emotions and let them know what they can do to help during these times.

Keep a Journal

Keep track of your moods, your medications and any problems you may have. This journal will help you talk with your physician and determine if changes in medication should be made. Include stressful situations, sleeping patterns and triggers you may have noticed.

Eat a Healthy Diet

Medications for bipolar disorder often cause weight gain. Eating right cannot only help you feel better physically; it can help to reduce the chances of gaining weight. Avoiding caffeine or limiting sugar helps some people to feel better.

Understand Your Medication

Learn about side effects and be aware of what side effects warrant contacting your physician, which require immediate medical attention and which should disappear within a week or two. Talk to your pharmacist or doctor about any interactions with other medications, even over-the-counter medications.

Although Bipolar Disorder is difficult to live with, there are many successful people that have battled the symptoms and have managed to cope with daily struggles and succeed. It is hard work, but it can be done.

bipolar disorder

Living With a Mood Disorder – Bipolar Disorder: Facts About Manic Depression Symptoms and Treatments

The diagnosis of a mental health issue like bipolar disorder may be met with many reactions. The patient may be saddened by the news; they may also feel scared, uncertain of what the future holds as a Bipolar Disorder sufferer. Some may even feel a sense of relief because they finally have a diagnosis. Whatever the reaction, the next step involves developing an understanding of the illness so that it can be treated.

Definition of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder is a serious mental illness. It used to be known as Manic Depressive Disorder or Manic Depression. Bipolar Disorder involves swings in mood from mania to depression. Mania is characterized by energetic, talkative, reckless and restless states. These can spiral into feelings of irritation,confusion,anger, and feelings of being trapped. Periods of mania can result in impulsive and risky behavior.

Depression is defined by periods of sadness, crying, feelings of worthlessness, loss of energy, loss of enjoyment and sleep problems. These mood swings can last months, even years or be very frequent and dramatic. Sometimes patients manages to function well with the disorder because the manic swings can be productive. The danger comes when symptoms worsen because of risk taking behavior associated with mania and the thoughts of self-harm or suicide that often come with depression.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

Unpredictable and dramatic mood swings are the primary symptom of bipolar disorder. The person with the disorder may display symptoms of mania which in addition to those already stated may include: excessive happiness,excitement,less need for sleep, high sex drive and making grand and unattainable plans.

The person may also show these additional signs of depression: anxiety, changes in appetite, weight gain or loss, and difficulty making decisions.

Types of Bipolar Disorder

In Bipolar type one the affected individual has had at least one manic episode in their life. In Bipolar type two moods cycle between high and low but the highs never reach full mania. In the rapid cycling type of bipolar disorder experiences four or more episodes of depression or mania in a year.

Mixed Bipolar patients experience highs and lows simultaneously or in rapid sequence. Cycothymia is a milder mood disorder with symptoms that are less severe than full blown Bipolar Disorder.

Treatment of Bipolar

Often, Bipolar Disorder is treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Anti-psychotic medications are often used to treat both depressive and manic symptoms. Mood stabilizers are often used as well. Lithium is often used to treat both types of mood swings. Anti-convulsion medications can also be used to stabilize depression. The disorder is manageable with the correct treatment and support.

drug abuse through the ages

Drug Abuse Through the Ages – High Society at Wellcome Collection

The United Nations recently estimated that the illicit drug trade is worth at least $320 billion per annum (£200bn). It looks as if society is engaged on an all time ‘high’, not just on drugs, but on tea, coffee and alcohol, mood-altering substances which we take for granted.

Mind-Altering Drugs in History and Culture

High Society is curated by author/historian Mike Jay, together with Caroline Fisher and Emily Sargent of the Wellcome Collection.

The exhibition charts the history of drugs and their plant origins; their use as medicines; and how mind-altering substances, such as ecstasy (MDMA), have been synthetically recreated and marketed.

The use of psychoactive substances is not a new phenomenon; the ancient Egyptians used poppy tinctures and the Victorians had their cocaine eye drops. Sherlock Holmes had his opium, and it is said that Alice’s bizarre adventures in Wonderland show the effects of drug abuse.

High Society presents more than two hundred items including drawings, paintings, sculptures, books and manuscripts. The display also features specially commissioned installations including a recreation of the Joshua Light Show (Joshua White/Seth Kirby). White is well-known for the psychedelic backdrops he created for Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin.

High Society – Layout of the Exhibition

High Society is set out in six clearly delineated sections:

  • A Universal Impulse explores society’s attitude to drugs. For example, a substance might be regarded as a public health problem in one country, but may be perfectly acceptable elsewhere.
  • From Apothecary to Laboratory looks at drugs, such as cocaine, opium, heroin and cannabis, which are derived from plants and used as medicines throughout history. Centuries ago opium was recognised as an effective painkiller and remains the main ingredient in many of today’s prescriptions. The exhibition looks at both the legal, and illegal, uses of opium, as well as the signs and symptoms of abuse, as recorded by numerous artists. De Historia Stirpivm, by Leonhard Fuchs (Basel, 1542), is a herbal, written in Latin, in which the author describes each plant in detail. The page shows a cannabis plant.
  • Self-experimentation explains how the majority of medicines are tested on animals and their affects proven in a laboratory. However, the affects of recreational drugs can only be described by their users. In the 19th Century many new drugs were discovered through self-experimentation and there was a fine line between entertainment and scientific research! The exhibition features the manuscript Kubla Khan, by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (ca. 1797-1804). Coleridge was known to use opium, usually in the form of laudanum, and claimed to have written this poem while under the influence of the drug.
  • Collective Intoxication demonstrates how drug use, and abuse, is so often a communal activity. 420 Day at the University of Colorado, (Mark Leffingwell), shows a mass ‘smoke-in’ as part of 4:20 celebrations. Celebrated annually on 20th April, 4:20 day is a counter-culture holiday closely linked to the campaign to legalise cannabis.
  • The Drugs Trade relates how the opium trade played a major part in the British Empire’s rise during the 19th Century.
  • A Sin, a Crime, a Vice or a Disease? This question was asked as long ago as 1884 by Dr. Norman Kerr. Defining the nature of drug abuse has always been problematic, as has deciding how to deal with it. High Society looks at the situation in the UK where substance abusers tend to be medicalised and substances are subject to a variety of legal statuses.

The exhibition concludes that however substance abuse is treated, little can be done to control the market for illegal narcotics.

High Society – Exhibition Catalogue

High Society is accompanied by a 192-page catalogue entitled High Society Mind-altering Drugs in History and Culture. Written by Mike Jay, and featuring150 colour illustrations, the publication provides a detailed history of mind-altering drugs around the world. (ISBN 978 0 500 251720, Thames & Hudson Ltd.)

High Society will be open until 27th February 2018 and further information is available from the Wellcome Collection.

inhalant drugs

The Effects and Abuse of Inhalant Drugs

Inhalants are chemical substances that are typically inhaled through the nose and mouth to create mind-altering effects. The chemicals are classified as inhalants due to the fact that other routes of administration are rarely used, unlike other abused substances which often have several methods of consumption.

Some inhalants are used for medical purposes, most notably nitrous oxide, which is used as a dental anaesthetic. Other inhalants are found in ordinary household products that are not usually considered drugs since inhaling is not intended or encouraged. Children and young adults abuse inhalants more than any other demographic. The substances are easy to access and most often free or inexpensive.

Inhalant Drugs Explained

Inhalant drugs include substances found in products such as:

  • paint thinner
  • gasoline
  • correction fluid
  • glue
  • aerosol sprays such as hair spray or vegetable oil spray
  • spray paint
  • lighter fluid

Medical anaesthetics such as ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide are classified as inhalant drugs. However, the drugs are usually more difficult for young people to obtain. One exception is nitrous oxide, which can be inhaled from an aerosol whipped cream dispenser. New users typically begin inhaling products like glue or spray paint, then develop habits for substances like gasoline, lighter fluid and nitrous oxide. Inhalant abuse can begin as young as 12 years old and last through adulthood. Children often abuse inhalants recreationally, sometimes as a cure for boredom. As with illicit drugs, recreational use morphs into dependence and addiction.

Administration of Inhalant Drugs

Inhalants can be absorbed in the nose and mouth in a variety of ways. The user may sniff, or “huff,” the fumes from a container. Aerosol substances may be sprayed directly into the nose or mouth or sprayed into a paper bag which is placed over the nose and mouth. Rags or cloth materials can be soaked in liquid substances and placed in the mouth. The fumes are immediately absorbed by the lungs and resemble the fast and intense effects of intravenous injection. The drugs peak so quickly that the effects only last a few minutes. This prompts users to sniff multiple times over several hours to achieve a longer lasting high.

Side Effects of Inhalant Drugs

Inhalants displace air in the lungs causing hypoxia, a condition that deprives the body of oxygen. Hypoxia can damage cells throughout the body, and brain cells are especially sensitive to the effects. Different regions of the brain can be permanently damaged leading to memory loss or the loss of the ability to speak. Long-term abuse can also damage nerve fibers which may affect the users ability to walk or talk. Short-term side effects of inhaling include:

  • nausea or vomiting
  • slurred speech
  • loss of motor skills
  • hearing loss
  • muscle spasms
  • liver or kidney damage
  • blood oxygen depletion

Inhaling chemicals from solvents or aerosol sprays can induce sudden heart failure within a matter of minutes. This is known as “sudden sniffing death.” Death can occur after only one use to a user who has never previously inhaled chemicals. Since oxygen is displaced in the lungs after inhaling, a user may lose consciousness and stop breathing, resulting in death by suffocation. Death from inhaling can happen so rapidly that users, or individuals with the users, may not be able to reach help.

Protecting Children from Inhalant Abuse

Six to eight percent of high school students reported using inhalants within the previous year. The percentages of use among this age group continue to rise. The perception of risk has declined and continues to spark the interest of young adults. Many children and teenagers believe inhalants are not as dangerous as drugs such as cocaine or heroin since inhalants are sold in stores and found in most homes. Restrictions have been put in place to prohibit individuals under age 18 from purchasing products like correction fluid or spray paint. However, if these items are available in the home, children have no restriction to access. Dangerous items should always remain out of reach of children and teenagers. Decreasing use of inhalants in the home is the easiest way to decrease overall use of inhalants in young populations.

Opioid abuse

Information on Opioid Abuse: Codeine, Fentanyl and Heroin

Opioid abuse can affect users’ health and social functioning. Also called narcotics, opioid drugs act upon specific receptors in the brain. When they bind to these opioid receptors, it causes euphoria. Over time, users can become dependent on them. In the article “Opioid Abuse,” NYU Langone Medical Center points out that the risk for opioid abuse is higher in people between the ages of 20 and 29. Examples of three abused opioid drugs include codeine, fentanyl and heroin.

Codeine Abuse

When used under the guidance of a doctor, codeine treats mild to moderate pain or coughing. Codeine has several different classifications for controlled substances, which vary depending on what other drugs are combined with it. For example, in the article “Codeine,” the US Drug Enforcement Administration explains that codeine alone is a Schedule II, but when it is combined with acetaminophen or aspirin, it is a Schedule III. Liquid versions of codeine for coughs are Schedule V controlled substances.

Taking too much codeine can result in an overdose. MedlinePlus points out in the article “Codeine” that users can have a slow heartbeat, difficulty breathing and dizziness when overdosing. Fainting and excessive drowsiness can occur. Users can also have cold and clammy skin. Other signs of an overdose of codeine include a loss of consciousness and muscle tone.

Fentanyl Abuse

Fentanyl is also a Schedule II drug. Its medical purpose is to treat pain in cancer patients or pain that is not controlled by other medications. Fentanyl is available as a patch, injection or lozenge. In the article “Fentanyl,” the National Institute on Drug Abuse notes that fentanyl may be mixed with heroin, which resulted in recent overdoses.

Uncontrolled intake of fentanyl can result in fainting and slow breathing. points out in the article “Fentanyl Information” that people overdosing on fentanyl may have cold and clammy skin or pinpoint pupils. Extreme weakness or dizziness can also occur during an overdose.

Heroin Abuse

In the article “Heroin,” the National Institute on Drug Abuse notes that in the Monitoring the Future Survey, 1.3 percent of eighth graders, 1.5 percent of tenth graders and 1.2 percent of twelfth graders responded that they had used heroin. This type of opioid drug is synthesized by morphine. Users smoke, inject or snort it. Heroin is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. The National Institute on Drug Abuse points out that 23 percent of people who use heroin become dependent on it.

MedlinePlus explains in the article “Heroin Overdose” that when people overdose on heroin, they can have breathing problems, such as shallow breathing, slow and difficult breathing or no breathing. Low blood pressure and a weak pulse can occur. Users can have bluish-colored nails and lips. A heroin overdose can also cause constipation or stomach and intestinal tract spasms. Other signs of a heroin overdose include muscle spasticity, drowsiness, disorientation, delirium and coma.

alcohol addiction

Steps Six and Seven of Alcoholics Anonymous: Surrendering – Humbly Asking God to Remove All Defects of Character

The challenge of discovering oneself intimately, and letting go of the old, addicted persona, is increased with the lessons of steps six and seven.

Steps six and seven further confront the addiction as character defects are identified and slowly eliminated. For the remainder of this article addiction will be used for both alcoholism and addiction to other substances.

Invaluable these steps are, if the trapping of the denial system is to be accomplished. However, it must be strongly impressed that the denial system can never be eliminated. The best that can be hoped for is to chain it down and cage it. See an unleashed denial system as a wild beast stalking prey.

Logically, it follows that, if the chains and cage are not checked and periodically re-checked, the denial system can be set free only to continue hunting and ravaging.

Defects of Character

Alcoholics Anonymous lists about 20 character defects. This is not an absolute list, and the number is not the key issue. Rather, a defect of character is any human factor that allows the addiction/denial system to take hold and continue the rampage. In order to prevent lapses (slips) and subsequent relapses, each and every defect or negative dynamic of character must be identified and removed.

Some Defects of Character:

  • “Anger;
  • Resentment;
  • Lying;
  • Fear; and,
  • Self-justification..

Surrendering to Removal

Surrendering to the removal of all defects of character is not as easy as it sounds. This is a process.

It is important to set realistic goals, otherwise, the endeavor may become too overwhelming, thus setting up a scenario of relapse territory. “This is too hard, I give up! Lick my wounds with something to drink.”

Best course of action:

  • Identify the defects;
  • Be consciously mindful of them; and,
  • Work towards letting them go.

For each identified defect compose a short description of how this was revealed in the past and the preventative measures or escape routes available to fall back upon in the present. Do not expect immediate results and allow for mishaps. Set up a support network – sponsor(s), phone contact(s) and recovery group(s).

Readiness to Take the Risk

The core of step six, however, is readiness to let go and move to the next level. Yes, it is scary leaving the old and familiar behind and stepping out to an adventure!

For comparison sake, think of it this way, how many times were drinking and driving an issue? Wasn’t it scary operating a vehicle – a potentially lethal weapon, blitzed?

How many times was a night in jail a consequence? For most people these would be very fearful ventures.

Asking God to Remove the Defects

Breaking out of isolation, reaching out for help, placing ever increasing amounts of trust in a supreme being, a sponsor and/or a recovery group, or a counselor are key components to step seven. No longer is the addiction or the once actively addicted persona allowed to operate secretly. No longer are the denial system and cycle of addiction allowed free rein.

Whatever and whoever the Higher Power entity is, accountability and responsibility as well as forgiveness are additional earmarks of this step. Realistically, faith/trust in a supreme being makes this step a little easier, in that only a supreme being has the ability to completely remove defects.

If the Higher Power is the recovery group, AA sponsor or addiction therapist, the removal must come from the recovering person through mindfulness and practice.

It is important to understand, many recovering people rework the steps over and over again. It is a logical and healthy activity to pursue, because relapse is a component of addiction. Sincere, 12 step inventories are a catalyst for growth, thus, keeping a full-blown relapse at bay.

Monthly shot

Monthly Shot May Help Recovering Drug Addicts

Opioids like hydrocodone, brand name Vicodin, and oxycodone, brand name OxyContin, are very potent pain relievers that can produce feelings of euphoria, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). When used on a short-term basis as directed, opioid analgesic drugs are generally safe and rarely lead to addiction. Common side effects of opioids can cause drowsiness, upset stomach, and constipation.

Opioids can be taken in pill form or crushed into a powder that is injected or snorted. The long-term use of opioids can eventually lead to physical and psychological dependence.

Snorting or injecting opioids quickly releases high doses of the drug into the bloodstream which increases the risk of overdose. A large single dose of an opioid can result in acute respiratory depression that can be fatal.

Vivitrol as an Alternative to Methadone

Until now, treatment choices for opioid addiction have been limited primarily to daily medications like methadone. Methadone is a synthetic opioid that’s been used since the 1980s to block the effects of heroin and other opioids, reports the NIDA. Methadone diminishes cravings and stops withdrawal symptoms that can range from sweating and anxiety to insomnia, tremors, high blood pressure and vomiting.

Vivitrol is a time-released version of a drug called naltrexone that works to inhibit opioid receptors in the brain. Naltrexone can intercept the effects of pain medications like Oxycontin and Vicodin. The FDA calls the approval of Vivtrol a “significant advancement in addiction treatment.”

The FDA studied Vivitrol in patients who were no longer physically addicted to opioids. Patients who received monthly Vivitrol injections were 13 percent more likely to complete a 6 month treatment program that those who were treated with a placebo.

Vivitrol Safety and Precautions

Patients must not have opioids in their system when they begin Vivitrol injections or they run the risk of experiencing opioid withdrawal symptoms, notes the FDA. Vivitrol should be administered only by a health care provider using special needles that are supplied with the medication.

Side effects associated with Vivitrol include fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, reduced appetite and muscle cramps. Allergic reactions such as rashes, hives and swelling are also possible.


Alcohol and Liver Disease: Ethanol Contributes to Fatty Liver, Hepatitis and Cirrhosis

Alcohol can cause liver injury that ranges from fatty infiltration and inflammation (hepatitis) to full-blown cirrhosis. The main factors that contribute to alcoholic liver disease are: quantity of alcohol consumed, duration of alcohol consumption, nutritional status, and genetic or metabolic disposition. You want to beat alcohol, before you start developing conditions like cirrhosis.

In the United States, annual alcohol consumption is estimated at ten liters of pure ethanol per person. Approximately 15 million people abuse or are dependent on alcohol, and men are nearly three times as likely as women to abuse alcohol. No matter how hard to work to maintain a healthy diet, if you are binge drinking, you are negating the effects of a health nutrition plan.

While only 10 to 20% of alcoholics eventually develop cirrhosis from drinking alcohol-more than 60 grams of alcohol daily (about five drinks) for two to four weeks induces fatty liver in otherwise healthy men. 80 gm/day can lead to alcoholic hepatitis, and 160 grams daily for a decade can lead to cirrhosis. (The Merck Manual, 18th Edition:211-214)

Factors that Increase Susceptibility to Alcoholic Liver Damage

  • Female gender: Women are more susceptible than men to alcohol-induced liver damage, even when adjusting for smaller body size. Women possess less alcohol dehydrogenase in their stomach linings, thus increasing the amount of alcohol from any given beverage that is absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
  • Familial tendency: Alcoholic liver disease often runs in families. This may represent a deficiency of cellular enzymes that metabolize alcohol.
  • Malnutrition: Alcohol is preferentially metabolized by the liver at the expense of other metabolic processes. A lack of specific nutrients, particularly proteins and B vitamins, slows the oxidation of alcohol, reduces the levels of antioxidant molecules in the liver, and leaves the liver susceptible to damage by other toxins.
  • Diets high in unsaturated fats: The liver prefers fatty acids as a fuel source. Fatty acids that aren’t used immediately are normally placed into triglyceride “packets” which are then routed to other organs and tissues. When alcohol is present, fatty acid metabolism and transport are delayed.
  • Iron deposition: Iron increases oxidative stress within liver cells. Certain diseases (e.g., hemochromatosis) increase the amount of iron stored in the liver. Indeed, chronic alcohol use itself leads to increased stores of liver iron.
  • Age: As people age, liver function (and the ability to metabolize alcohol) declines.
  • Chronic liver disease: The presence of other liver diseases, particularly hepatitis C, significantly increases one’s susceptibility to alcohol-related liver damage.

Stages of Alcoholic Liver Damage

  1. Fatty liver (steatosis): As noted above, alcohol interferes with the normal metabolism of fatty acids in the liver. Drinking for only a short period of time can induce significant accumulation of lipids. Fatty liver is potentially reversible.
  2. Alcoholic hepatitis: Continued exposure to alcohol leads to progressive damage to liver cells, accompanied by inflammation and various degrees of liver dysfunction. Alcoholic hepatitis may range from a mild, reversible illness (fatigue, fever, jaundice, abdominal pain) to a life-threatening condition (jaundice, liver failure, electrolyte abnormalities, bleeding).
  3. Cirrhosis: As liver damage progresses, extensive scarring replaces the normal architecture of the liver. Cirrhosis is irreversible (and increases the risk of liver cancer), but the liver possesses a remarkable ability to regenerate. With abstinence from alcohol, small islands of remaining cells may recover and continue to offer some level of liver function.

The key to preventing alcoholic liver disease is limiting alcohol consumption. “Sensible” drinking limits have generally been defined as:

  • For men, no more than two drinks daily
  • For women, no more than one drink daily
  • For individuals over 65 years old, no more than one drink daily

One-drink equivalents are:

  • One 12-ounce beer
  • 4-5 ounces of wine
  • 1 ounce of 100-proof distilled spirits



What is Holistic Medicine

Holistic medicine, a relatively new term is actually something that has been around for generations. It is basically the art as well as the signs of trying to heal a person by addressing the entire body, which consists of the body, the spirit and the mind of the person. The true practice of the holistic medicine is basically to integrate the conventional as well is the alternative therapies so as to prevent as well as create any kind of disease. The optimal purpose of holistic treatment and medicine is basically to promote the optimal health of the person. The condition of such holistic health is primarily defined by the uninterrupted flow of life force throughout the body, the mind as well as the spirit.

The holistic medicine can encompass all kind of safe treatment as well as have different modalities when it comes to diagnosis and its treatment of the human body. It shall include the analysis of the physical, environmental, emotional, lifestyle choices as well as nutritional features of the user in question. The holistic medicine basically focus is upon the patient education as well as the participation of the user in the total healing process.

What are the principles of holistic medicine?

The people that practice holistic medicine embraces a treatment option which is safe as well as effective in terms of diagnosis and treatment. These include a complete change in the lifestyle, education for any kind of self-care and support, as well as the use of the conventional drugs and the need for surgery.

Basically, holistic medicine embraces the best of conventional treatment while at the same time finding out the underlying causes of the disease and trying to prefer to get the symptoms in check and use proper medications. The physicians always make an effort in order to establish the kind of patient, as well as the kind of disease and establishing the type of treatment that is needed by the patient.

Any kind of illness found in the user is actually just as a manifestation of the total dysfunction within the person, and it is not an isolated incident. A major determining factor when it comes to healing and proper treatment of the person is the quality of the relationship which will be established by the physician and the patient in question. However, the autonomy of the patient will not be challenged, but rather encouraged by the physician.

The physician will be able to significantly influence the patients by using various examples and case studies for the same kind of symptoms. Any kind of illness or pain in the patient will be diagnosed and treated appropriately without any further questions. One of the bases of holistic medicine is also providing unconditional love to the patient. It is a very powerful medicine adopted by various practitioners across the world. Optimal health is extremely important, and always happens to be a constant pursuit by people using and understanding the perfect features behind the holistic medicine. It will be able to improve the social aspects of the overall human experience.