One of the oldest types of drugs is opiates. An opiate is usually derived from an exudate of opium poppy.
- A detection of codeine or morphine in the laboratory may be performed through immunoassay whereas confirmation is made using mass spectrometry or gas chromatography.
- The initial laboratory detection limits 300 ng per ml and a sensitivity of 20 ng per ml.
- Heroin may be detected around 24 to 48 hours after dosing and just a little bit longer for codeine.
- A positive may be confirmed using the GC or MS and a 300 ng per ml cutoff level.
For many centuries, opiates have been used mainly for pain relief.
The principal alkaloid in opium is morphine. Its name morphine was taken from the name Morpheus or the Greek god of dreams. The effects of opium to one’s psychology have long been known by ancient Sumerians. However, the first reference to opium poppy was noted in the 3rd century B.C.
Like other drugs, the chemistry of morphine has been experimented extensively by modern chemistry which leads to a more potent and more addictive form of opioids. Moreover, since the hypodermic needle was invented, abuse of morphine also increased.
Other events that contributed to the increase in opioid abuse was noted in the late 1800s with Chinese workers smoking opium, during the Civil War where morphine was administered to casualties and an apparent lack of regulation before the 20th century. In addition, during the Civil War, an extremely potent opioid known as heroin was synthesized which results in a number of addicted Civil War soldiers.
An opioid is a term used to describe the huge chemistry of exogenous substances that bind to receptor sites, all producing agonistic effects.
Opioids have similar properties with naturally present peptides like enkephalins and endorphins. It targets certain receptor sites that cause effects which have been blocked using opioid antagonist drugs like naltrexone and naloxone that bind to receptors and displace opioids in the process. Opioids are also useful as antidotes for opioid overdose.
Heroin, codeine, morphine, and other similar synthetic opioid analogs create a great impact on your central nervous system as well as your bowels. The effects vary and may include analgesia, respiratory depression, drowsiness, decreased gastrointestinal motility and changes in mood. Your pupils may also appear constricted and may not be stimulated by light.
One of the most abused and highly addictive opioids is heroin which is synthesized using morphine through acetylation to morphine. Once inserted into your body intravenously, the drug may quickly be diacetylated into morphine and is metabolized more by your liver to urinary metabolites like codeine, which is generally taken orally.
Opioid addicts prefer to use heroin.
Methadone is a synthesized opioid with agonistic actions. On the contrary, it may have weaker effects on your mood. Opioids are also used as maintenance drugs by opioid addicts and for those who prefer or require to go the long route, naltrexone as in Trexan may be useful as an antagonistic for the long-term.